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Nationhood and Social Cohesion

Ideas of closed and open borders have dominated topics on migration in the American context.  The debates focus on what immigration policies should be instead of focusing attention on what is occurring in the international system. Questions of western identity infuse themselves into the discussion.  Western societies are gripped by the conflict between differing conceptions of the nation and idealism.
Populist anti-immigrant movements have risen across the Western world.  The skepticism of immigration has newfound prominence in Brexit, Swedish Democrats, National Front, Alternative for Germany, Freedom Party, and President Trump’s government shutdown over a border wall.  In Western Europe fears of a changing national identity has led to the increase of support for immigration restrictions.
The rise of populist movements has created political chaos.  The United Kingdom held a popular vote to exit the European Union without a plan in place in case the electorate voted to leave.  Negotiations with the EU produced a Brexit bill that was rejected in the U.K. parliament.  In Sweden, the establishment parties formed a coalition government with themselves to isolate the rising Swedish Democrats.

In the United States, political chaos continues with debates over funding a wall on the Mexican border.  Central to the Trump campaign was a “big beautiful wall” paid by Mexico.  When it became apparent that Mexico was never going to pay for the wall, President Trump sought congressional funding which Democrats refused to fully accommodate.


Reference:
Adam Lusher. “Racism Unleashed: Incident by Incident – the Grim Litany of Post-Brexit Hate Crime.” Independent (blog), July 28, 2016. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/racism-unleashed-brexit-eu-referendum-post-referendum-racism-true-scale-of-post-eu-referendum-a7149836.html.

Andrei P. Tsygankov. Russia’s Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity. Fourth Edition. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.

Dagmar Myslinska. “Incomplete Europeans: Polish Migrants’ Experience of Discrimination in the UK Is Complicated by Their Whiteness.” The London School of Economics and Political Science (blog), September 3, 2016. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2016/03/09/incomplete-europeans-polish-migrants-experience-of-prejudice-and-discrimination-in-the-uk-is-complicated-by-their-whiteness/.

Jasmina Bidé. “The EU Referendum Debate Is Targeting Central-Eastern European Migrants.” The London School of Economics and Political Science (blog), May 4, 2016. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2016/04/05/the-eu-referendum-debate-is-targeting-central-eastern-european-migrants/.

Kate Lyons. “Racist Incidents Feared to Be Linked to Brexit Result.” The Guardian (blog), June 26, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/26/racist-incidents-feared-to-be-linked-to-brexit-result-reported-in-england-and-wales.

Kelly M. Greenhill. Weapons of Mass Migration: Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy. Kindle. Cornell Studies in Security Affairs. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.
Larry Wolff. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Paperback. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Paul Collier. Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World. Kindle Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Paul Collier, and Alexander Betts. Refuge: Rethinking Refugee Policy in a Changing World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, n.d.

“Polish Man Attacked and Beaten by Gang of up to 20 Teenagers in Leeds.” The Guardian (blog), September 12, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/sep/12/polish-man-attacked-beaten-gang-20-teenagers-leeds-racially-aggravated-assault.

Raymond Taras. Nationhood, Migration, and Global Politics: An Introduction. Paperback. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

Samira Shackle. “Polish Nationals in Britain Worry about the Future.” DW (blog), September 5, 2016. https://www.dw.com/en/polish-nationals-in-britain-worry-about-the-future/a-19527767.
Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius. The German Myth of the East: 1800 to the Present. Oxford Studies in Medieval European History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Virgil Henry Storr. Understanding the Culture of Markets. Kindle Edition. Routledge Foundations of the Market Economy 31. Routledge, 2013.

Zachary Yost. “The Federal Government Can’t Centrally Plan Society. So Why Do We Think It Can Plan Immigration? The Case for a Decentralized Framework.” Arcdigital (blog), July 23, 2018. https://arcdigital.media/the-federal-government-cant-centrally-plan-society-so-why-do-we-think-it-can-plan-immigration-e5b9137379fa?fbclid=IwAR0Kl_mbUIFywyIdiWuet3aJDMWqghsDi9JN1mHc0yFvbnlUCjs6vbU7rP4.

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